reverse charge mechanism

Reverse Charge Mechanism (RCM) in GST - An Overview

February 01, 2023 • 6425 views

In 2017, the Government of India introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in a bid to subsume various indirect taxes into a single taxation system. As a part of the, ‘One Nation- One Tax’ initiative, the new GST system came with various other inclusions, including the Reverse Charge Mechanism. Read on to learn more about the meaning of the reverse charge mechanism under GST, how it works, its applicability and more. 

What is the Reverse Charge Mechanism (RCM) in GST?

Reverse charge mechanism, RCM is an important concept under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime. It is a mechanism wherein the liability to pay tax is shifted from the seller to the buyer. RCM is applicable when goods and services are purchased from unregistered dealers or otherwise.
Normally, the goods or services suppliers pay the supply tax. However, under RCM, the goods and services recipient has to pay the tax, as the tax chargeability gets reserved. Its main objective is to widen the tax levy scope on various unorganised sectors to exempt certain classes of suppliers and to tax the import of services. 

Reverse charge mechanism

How Does the Reverse Charge Mechanism Work?

Under the reserve charge mechanism, the buyer must pay the GST for goods and services purchased from unregistered dealers, as these dealers do not have to pay GST on their sales. Hence, the buyer is required to pay GST and claim the input tax credit (ITC). 
In addition, RCM applies to certain types of goods and services, notified by the GST Council from time to time. These goods and services include alcoholic liquor from human consumption, arbitral tribunal services, legal services and services by way of renting motor vehicles. 
The RCM applies to both Intra-State and Inter-State transactions:

  • In Intra-State transactions, the RCM applies to unregistered dealers in the same state.
  • In Inter-State transactions, the RCM applies to unregistered dealers in different states.

ALSO READ :- Everything You Need to Know About GST on Loans

Applicability of Reverse Charge Mechanism (RCM)

The reverse charge mechanism in GST is applicable under the following scenarios:
1.    Supply of Specific Goods and Services
The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has specified certain goods and services on which RCM is applicable, empowered by Section 9(3) of the CGST Act.
2.    Supply from Unregistered Dealer to Registered Dealer
Section 9(4) of the CGST Act states that for an unregistered dealer to supply goods to a registered dealer,  they must pay the GST at the applicable rate. In addition, in intra-state purchases, the SGST and CGST are applicable under RCM, and IGST is applicable for inter-state purchases.
3.    Supply of Services Through E-Commerce Operators
Section 9(5) of the CGST Act empowers e-commerce operators to collect the applicable GST from the buyers and deposit the same with the government. The operator is responsible for providing the details of the sellers and buyers to the tax authorities. 

Responsibility for Paying GST under RCM

The goods and services recipients must pay GST under RCM. However, according to the GST law provisions, the supplier providing the goods must mention in the invoice if the tax is payable under the reverse charge mechanism.
In addition, the following points are crucial while making GST payments under the reverse charge mechanism:

  1. The recipient of the goods and services can claim an input tax credit on the tax amount paid under RCM. It is applicable only when the buyer purchases the goods or services for business growth and advancement. 
  2. When discharging liability under RCM, a composition dealer must pay the tax at the normal rate instead of the composition rate. They are also not eligible to claim any input tax credit on the tax paid.
  3. GST compensation cess may be applicable on the payable or already paid tax under the reverse charge mechanism (RCM).

Goods and Services Governed by RCM

The following tables portray the goods and services governed by RCM:

  • List of Supply of Goods Under RCM

Serial Number

Description of Supply of Goods

Supplier of Goods

Recipient of Goods

1.

Cashew nuts, not shelled or peeled.

Agriculturist

Any registered person

2.

Tobacco leaves

Agriculturist

Any registered person

3.

Bidi wrapper leaves (tendu)

Agriculturist

Any registered person

4.

Silk yarn

Any person manufacturing silk yarn from raw silk or silk cocoons for supply of Silk Yarn

Any registered person

5.

Used vehicles, seized and confiscated goods, old and used goods, waste and scrap

State Government, Central Government, Union Territory or a local authority

Any registered person

6.

Raw cotton

Agriculturist

Any registered person

7.

Supply of lottery

State Government, Union Territory or any local authority

Lottery distributor or selling agent

  • List of Supply of Services Under RCM

Serial Number

Description of Supply of Goods

Supplier of Services

Recipient of Services

1.

GTA services

Goods Transport Agency under GST (GTA) who has not paid integrated tax at the rate of 12%

Any factory, society, cooperative society, registered person, body corporate, partnership firm, or casual taxable person; located in the taxable territory

2.

Service offered by a person located in non-taxable territory to any person other than the non-taxable online recipient

Any person located in a non-taxable territory

Any person located in the taxable territory other than a non-taxable online recipient

3.

Legal services by advocate

An individual advocate, including a senior advocate or a firm of advocates

Any business entity located in the taxable territory

4.

Services provided by way of sponsorship to any corporate or partnership firm

Any Person

Anybody corporate or partnership firm located in the taxable territory

5.

Services supplied by an arbitral tribunal to a business entity

An arbitral tribunal

Any business entity located in the taxable territory

6.

Services supplied by the Central Government, State Government, Union territory or local authority to a business entity excluding -

(1) renting of immovable property, and  (2) services specified below- (i) services by the Department of Posts by way of speed post, express parcel post, life insurance, and agency services provided to a person other than Central Government, State Government or Union territory or local authority; (ii) services concerning an aircraft or a vessel, inside or outside the precincts of a port or an airport; (iii) transport of goods or passengers.

 

Central Government, State Government, Union territory or local authority

Any business entity located in the taxable territory

7.

Services supplied by an insurance agent to any person carrying on insurance business

An Insurance Agent

Any person carrying on insurance business, located in the taxable territory

8.

Services supplied by a director of a company or a body corporate to the said company or the body corporate

A director of a company or a body corporate

The company or a body corporate located in the taxable territory

9.

Services supplied by a person located in non-taxable territory by way of transportation of goods by a vessel from a place outside India up to the customs station of clearance in India

A person located in non-taxable territory

Importer, as defined in clause (26) of section 2 of the Customs Act, 1962(52 of 1962), located in the taxable territory

10.

Services supplied by a recovery agent to a banking company, a financial institution, or a non-banking financial company

A recovery agent

A banking company, a financial institution, or a non-banking financial company, located in the taxable territory

11.

Supply of services by the members of the Overseeing Committee to the Reserve Bank of India

Members of the Overseeing Committee constituted by the Reserve Bank of India

Reserve Bank of India

12.

Supply of services by an author, music composer, photographer, artist or the like by way of transfer or permitting the use or enjoyment of a copyright covered under section 13(1) (a) of the Copyright Act, 1957, relating to original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works to a publisher, music company, producer or the like

Author or music composer, photograph her, artist, or the like

Publisher, music company, producer or the like, located in the taxable territory

Compliance Guidelines for RCM

The following are the compliance guidelines for the reverse charge mechanism:

  1. Every registered person must keep and maintain records of all supplies attracting tax payment on reverse charge.
  2. According to Section 31 of the CGST Act, 2017, read with Rule 46 of the CGST Rules, 2017, every tax invoice must contain whether the tax in respect of supply in the invoice is payable on reverse charge. Similarly, it must also be mentioned in the receipt voucher and refund voucher if the tax payable is on reverse charge. 
  3. Any amount payable under reverse charge must be paid by debiting the electronic cash ledger. However, after discharging reverse charge liability, the recipient can take credit for the same, if he is otherwise eligible. 
  4. Advance paid for reverse charge supplies is also leviable to GST. The person making the advance payment must pay tax on a reverse charge basis.
  5. Invoice level information in respect of all supplies attracting reverse charge, rate-wise, must be furnished separately in Table 4B of GSTR-1.

ALSO READ :- A List of Required Documents for GST Registration

Time of Supply of Goods & Services under RCM

Here is the time of supply for goods and services under RCM under GST:

  • RCM Time of Supply (Goods)

The time of supply of goods should be the earliest of the following dates:

  1. The date of receipt of the goods.
  2. The immediate date is after 30 days from the date mentioned in the invoice issued by the supplier.
  3. In case the time of supply is unclear, the entry date of the goods in the recipient’s books shall be considered.
  • RCM Time of Supply (Services)

In the case of services provided by the supplier, the time of supply will be determined by the earliest one of any of the following dates:

  1. The immediate date is after 60 days from the date mentioned in the invoice issued by the supplier.
  2. In case the time of supply is unclear, the entry date in the recipient’s books shall be considered.

Self-Invoicing & Exemptions Under Reverse Charge

Self-invoicing is done when a buyer purchases from an unregistered supplier, and these purchases of goods and services come under reverse charge. It is because the supplier cannot issue a GST-compliant invoice to the buyer, making them liable to pay taxes on the seller’s behalf. Hence, self-invoicing becomes necessary in such situations. 
In addition, Section 31(3)(G) of the CGST Act mandates that a recipient who is liable to pay tax under Section 9(3) or 9(4) must issue a payment voucher to the supplier during the time of making payment. 
The government has ?5,000 exemption per day. Hence, if the total purchase is less than ?5,000 per day made to an unregistered seller, the buyer has no requirement to pay tax on the reverse charge mechanism under GST. However, this total limit of ?5,000 is for all suppliers and not from individual suppliers.

Registration Rules and RCM

A person liable to pay GST under the reverse charge mechanism must compulsorily register under GST, as per section 24 of the CGST Act, 2017. They are also excluded from the threshold limitations of Rs. 20 Lakh or Rs. 40 Lakh as it will not apply to them.

Conclusion on RCM in GST

The reverse charge mechanism is a concept under GST where the buyer has to pay the tax shifted from the goods and services supplier. They must pay the tax directly to the Government of India instead of the supplier. In addition, under the RCM, the payment must be issued within 180 days for the recipient to avail input tax credit. 

Frequently Asked Questions about Reverse Charge Mechanism under GST

1.    Who is required to register for the RCM?
Any business buying goods and services from unregistered suppliers must register for the RCM under GST, irrespective of the turnover threshold specified by the GST Council.

2.    When is the RCM applicable?
The RCM under GST is applicable under the following scenarios:

  • Supply of certain goods and services specified by the CBIC
  • Supply from an unregistered dealer to a registered dealer
  • Supply of services through an e-commerce operator

3.    When can I claim the ITC of tax paid under RCM?
If you have paid tax under RCM in a month, you can claim it as an input tax credit (ITC) in the following month.

Disclaimer

We take utmost care to provide information based on internal data and reliable sources. However, this article and associated web pages provide generic information for reference purposes only. Readers must make an informed decision by reviewing the products offered and the terms and conditions. Loan disbursal is at the sole discretion of Poonawalla Fincorp.
*Terms and Conditions apply

poonawalla fincorp team

Poonawalla Fincorp Team

We are a team of expert writers and editors passionate about providing our readers with authentic and valuable information on finance. Our aim is to simplify financial and finance-related concepts. We strive to help our readers become more aware and empowered to make informed financial decisions.

Trending Topics



Contact Us logo Quick Apply CIBIL Score logo Free CIBIL Whatsapp logo Connect on WhatsApp